15
JUL
Teori Belajar yang Mendasari E Learning Kategori: Umum dilihat: 3028 kali diposting tahun 2016

Moedritscher (2006 : 4-8) menyebutkan ada tiga teori belajar utama yang melandasi e-learning yaitu, teori behaviorism, cognitivism, dan constructivism.

Teori behaviorism
Moedritscher (2006 : 5) menyatakan :  
“Behaviourists recommend a structured, deductive approach to design an online course, so that basic concepts, skills, and factual information can rapidly be acquired by the learners. Further implications on online learning can be summarized by the concept of drill and practice, portioning materials and assessing learner’s achievement levels, and giving external feedback. However, the effectiveness of behavioural design approaches for higher-order learning tasks or for transfer of learning is as yet unproven”.

Sementara itu Daryanto (2010 : 2) menambahkan bahwa dalam paradigma behavioristik belajar merupakan transmisi pengetahuan dari expert ke novice di mana pendidik berperan dalam menyediakan dan menuangkan informasi sebanyak-banyaknya kepada peserta didik. Pendidik dikatakan berhasil apabila dapat menuangkan pengetahuan sebanyak-banyaknya kepada peserta didik dan peserta didik dikatakan berhasil apabila mereka tunduk dan menerima pengetahuan yang diberikan oleh pendidik.

Teori cognitivism
Penerimaan informasi melalui rekaman indera mempunyai dua implikasi penting yaitu harus memberikan perhatian pada informasi yang akan diingat dan diperlukan waktu untuk membawa semua informasi yang dilihat dalam waktu singkat ke dalam kesadaran.
Moedritscher (2006 : 6-7) menjelaskan bahwa :
“Cognitive psychology focuses on learners’ receiving and processing of information to transfer it into long-term memory for storage. Therefore, instructional designers have to consider different aspects beginning from chunking the learning content into smaller parts and supporting different learning styles up to higher concepts such as motivation, collaboration or meta-cognition. Although the cognitive-focused approach is well suited for reaching higher-level objectives, a major weakness can be identified, if a learner lacks of relevant prerequisite knowledge. To account this, a course designer has to ensure that the instructions are appropriate for all skill levels and experiences, which is evidently costly and time consuming”.

Teori constructivism
Moedritscher (2006 : 7-8) mengatakan bahwa pengalaman dan interaksi sosial berperan dalam proses pembelajaran. Hal-hal yang harus diperhatikan dalam pembelajaran online antara lain: (1) learning should be an active process, (2) instructors have to provide good interactive online instructions, (3) collaborative and cooperative learning should be encouraged to facilitate constructivist learning, (4) Learners should be given control of the learning process, (5) students should be given time and opportunity to reflect the learning content, (6) Learning should be made meaningful and illustrative for learners by including examples and use cases for theoretical information, dan (7) Instructors should focus on interactive learning activities to promote higher-level learning and social presence and to help develop personal meaning.

Prev Page Next Page

Artikel Terkait